protocol buffers tutorial

How RPC Works. null, 当网络中不同主机进行数据传输时,我们就可以采用JSON进行传输。将现有的数据对象转换为JSON字符串就是对对象的序列化操作,将接收到的JSON字符串转换为我们需要的对象,就是反序列化操作。下面以JSONcpp作为C++的JSON解析库,来演示一下将对象序列化为JSON字符串,并从JSON字符串中解析出我们想要的数据。, 上面的major输出之所以为空,是因为JSON字符串中没有major字段。使用JSON来传输我们的数据对象,新增加的major字段可以放在任意的位置,并不影响我们从JSON中解析我们想要的字段。这样在服务端和客户端之间就可以传输不同类型的数据对象了!, XML(Extensible Markup Language),可扩展标记语言,用结构化的方式来表示数据,和JSON一样,都是一种数据交换格式。C++对象可以序列化为XML,用于网络传输或存储。XML具有统一标准、可移植性高等优点,但因为文件格式复杂,导致序列化结果数据较大,传输占用带宽,其在序列化与反序列化场景中,没有JSON常见。, Google Protocol Buffers是Google内部使用的数据编码方式,旨在用来代替XML进行数据交换。可用于数据序列化与反序列化。主要特性有: What is Protocol Buffer. This tutorial quickly introduced Protocol Buffers and illustrated the setting up of a REST API using the format with Spring. The implementation of all the examples and code snippets can be found in a GitHub project. JSON 语法是 JavaScript 对象表示语法的子集。语法规则有: Protocol Buffers Course Introduction: Get an understand of the course objectives, how the course is structured, download the course code and get ready! (1)高效; This tutorial explains how to compile protocol buffers using Maven. you will have a better advantage. See also the header file generated by Protoc, it lists the available methods. You define how you want your data to be structured once, then you can use special generated source code to easily write and read your structured data to and from a variety of data streams and using a variety of languages. The documentation on the Google's site is scarce. --java_out=. 数组(在方括号中) 花括号保存对象 All in all Perkel buffers … 构建和安装C++ Protocol Buffer runtime和ProProtocol Protocol buffers downloads and instructions, The latest protocol buffers code and releases, Sign up for the Google Developers newsletter. 对象(在花括号中) 生成的代码中包含了一个PhoneType 枚举,它对应于.proto文件中的那个枚举。你可以把这个类型当作Student::PhoneType,其值为Student::MOBILE和Student::HOME(实现的细节稍微复杂了点,但是没关系,不理解它也不会影响你使用该枚举)。, 编译器还生成了一个名为Student::PhoneNumber的嵌套类。如果你看看代码,就会发现“真实的”类实际上是叫做Student_PhoneNumber,只不过Student内部的一个typedef允许你像一个嵌套类一样来对待它。这一点所造成的唯一的一个区别就是:如果你想在另一个文件中对类进行前向声明(forward-declare)的话,你就不能在C++中对嵌套类型进行前向声明了,但是你可以对Student_PhoneNumber进行前向声明。, 关于标准消息函数(Standard Message Methods)。 By walking through this example you’ll learn how to: Define a service in a .proto file. Skip to content. Buffer compiler (protoc) 需要执行如下命令:, 如果上面的命令没有出错,那么恭喜你,你就完成了对ProtoBuf源码的编译和安装的工作。下面我们就可以使用ProtoBuf的编译器protoc对我们的.proto文件啦。, make install注意权限问题,最好使用sudo make install。安装成功之后,使用which protoc就可以查看protoc已经安装成功了。ProtoBuf默认安装的路径在/usr/local,当然我们可以在配置的时候改变安装路径,使用如下命令:, 安装成功后,我们执行protoc --version 查看我们的Protocol Buffer的版本,我使用的版本是:libprotoc 2.6.1。, 有了Protocol Buffers的编译器protoc,我们就可以来编译我们自定义的.proto文件来产生对应的消息类,生成一个头文件 ( 定义.proto文件中的消息类 ),和一个源文件(实现.proto文件中的消息类)。, 编译方法。指定源目录(即你的应用程序源代码所在的目录——如果不指定的话,就使用当前目录)、目标目录(即生成的代码放置的目录,通常与$SRC_DIR是一样的),以及你的.proto文件所在的目录。命令如下:, 因为需要生成的是C++类,所以使用了–cpp_out选项参数——protocol buffers也为其他支持的语言提供了类似的选项参数,如--java_out=OUT_DIR,指定java源文件生成目录。, 以上面自定义的student.proto为例,来编译产生我们的student消息类。运行如下命令:, 让我们看一下生成的代码,了解一下编译器为你创建了什么样的类和函数。如果你看了编译器protoc为我们生成的student.pb.h文件,就会发现你得到了一个类,它对应于student.proto文件中写的每一个消息(message)。更深入一步,看看Student类:编译器为每一个字段生成了读写函数。例如,对name,id,email以及phone字段,分别有如下函数:, 正如你所看到的,getter函数具有与字段名一模一样的名字,并且是小写的,而setter函数都是以set_前缀开头。此外,还有has_前缀的函数,对每一个单一的(required或optional的)字段来说,如果字段被置(set)了值,该函数会返回true。最后,每一个字段还有一个clear_前缀的函数,用来将字段重置(un-set)到空状态(empty state)。, 然而,数值类型的字段id就只有如上所述的基本读写函数,name和email字段则有一些额外的函数,因为它们是string——前缀为mutable_的函数返回string的直接指针(direct pointer)。除此之外,还有一个额外的setter函数。注意:你甚至可以在email还没有被置(set)值的时候就调用mutable_email(),它会被自动初始化为一个空字符串。在此例中,如果有一个单一消息字段,那么它也会有一个mutable_ 前缀的函数,但是没有一个set_ 前缀的函数。, 重复的字段也有一些特殊的函数——如果你看一下重复字段phone 的那些函数,就会发现你可以: const是C语言的关键字,经C++扩充,功能变得强大,用法复杂。const用于定义一个常变量(只读变量)。当const与指针、引用、函数等结合起来使用时,情况... (int)是一种被称为强制转换的显示转换。源变量和目标变量必须是兼容的(必须都是int类型的)。并且有丢失数据的风险。因为目标变量的类型大小小于源变量。. You may choose any programming language from a variety of languages such as Java, C++, C#, Go, Dart, Python to serialize your data using Google protocol buffers. Protocol buffers are Google's language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serialising structured data – think XML, but smaller, faster, and simpler. Protocol buffer on the other hand is not self-describing, instead they work through binary serialization which means that they encode and compress the data to binary stream which is extremely lightweight and easy to transfer. By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you how to. It’s Protocol Buffers (protobuf). Once we do this, we can generate code by executing a protoc command:. Each tutorial in this section shows you how to implement a simple application using protocol buffers in your favourite language, introducing you to the language's protocol buffer API as well as showing you the basics of creating and using .proto files. By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you how to. (3)可扩展。 [3]序列化和反序列化 There’s a better alternative to the ubiquitous JSON as the communication protocol of the web. (1)如果有可能,重复利用消息(message)对象。即使被清除掉,消息(message)对象也会尽量保存所有被分配来重用的内存。这样的话,如果你正在处理很多类型相同的消息以及一系列相似的结构,有一个好办法就是重复使用同一个消息(message)对象,从而使内存分配的压力减小一些。然而,随着时间的流逝,对象占用的内存也有可能变得越来越大,尤其是当你的消息尺寸(译者注:各消息内容不同,有些消息内容多一些,有些消息内容少一些)不同的时候,或者你偶尔创建了一个比平常大很多的消息(message)的时候。你应该自己监测消息(message)对象的大小——通过调用SpaceUsed函数——并在它太大的时候删除它。, (2)在多线程中分配大量小对象的内存的时候,你的操作系统的内存分配器可能优化得不够好。在这种情况下,你可以尝试用一下Google’s tcmalloc。, Protocol Buffers的作用绝不仅仅是简单的数据存取以及序列化。请阅读C++ API reference全文来看看你还能用它来做什么。, protocol消息类所提供的一个关键特性就是反射。你不需要编写针对一个特殊的消息(message)类型的代码,就可以遍历一个消息的字段,并操纵它们的值,就像XML和JSON一样。“反射”的一个更高级的用法可能就是可以找出两个相同类型的消息之间的区别,或者开发某种“协议消息的正则表达式”,利用正则表达式,你可以对某种消息内容进行匹配。只要你发挥你的想像力,就有可能将Protocol Buffers应用到一个更广泛的、你可能一开始就期望解决的问题范围上。, 断断续续,历时将近三周的时间,终于坚持完成了本篇blog。最初出于对protobuf的好奇以及对数据对象在传输过程中的序列化和反序列化的不解,所以就尝试去查阅资料,独自了解序列化和反序列化的概念,方法,以及protobuf的用法。本篇主要介绍了protobuf的编译安装,API简介以及对数据的序列化和反序列的简单操作,可供网友参考。, [1]protobuf官网 The -I option specifies a directory in which a proto file resides.The java-out specifies a directory where the generated class will be created. This tutorial provides a basic Java programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. 2. 数据由逗号分隔 (1)得到重复字段的_size(换句话说,这个Person关联了多少个电话号码)。, (3)向消息(message)中添加另一个电话号码,然后你可以编辑它(重复的标量类型有一个add_前缀的函数,允许你传新值进去)。, 关于编译器如何生成特殊字段的更多信息,请查看文章C++ generated code reference。, 关于枚举和嵌套类(Enums and Nested Classes)。 Protocol Buffers (a.k.a., protobuf) are Google's language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data. protoc -I=. To learn Protocol Buffer, the most intuitive way is to go to the Google Protocol Buffer official website and start its official tutorial. In this tutorial, we will see how protocol buffers can be used in the context of GO Language. You can find protobuf's documentation on the Google Developers site . Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Protocol Buffers, or Protobuf for short, a data interchange format originally developed for internal use, has been offered to the general public as an open source project (partly Apache 2.0 license) by Google since 2008. The complete sample code for each application is also provided. [5]Protocol Buffer Basics: C++中文翻译(Google Protocol Buffers中文教程) Protocol Buffers were introduced by Google. This tutorial provides a basic Java programmer’s introduction to working with gRPC. (3)可以序列化STL容器和其他常用模版库。 [8]LD_LIBRARY_PATH.百度百科 Sign in Sign up Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. What is Protocol Buffer. By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you how to Define message formats in a .proto file. Is it a good choice to use Google Protocol Buffers in JavaScript or is it better to do it with JSON? A client application makes a local procedure call to the client … 方括号保存数组, JSON支持的类型有: In this guide we will see how to use Google protocol buffers in Java to serialize structured data. In this article, we'll be looking at the Google Protocol Buffer (protobuf) – a well-known language-agnostic binary data format. Generate server and client code using the protocol buffer compiler. Protocol Buffers messages are encoded in a binary format [2], which means they are not human readable unless we decode them back to a readable format. If you want to add richer behaviour to a generated class, the best way to do this is to wrap the generated protocol buffer class in an application-specific class. Tag . If you want to add richer behavior to a generated class, the best way to do this is to wrap the generated protocol buffer class in an application-specific class. 数据在键值对中 Protocol Buffers messages are encoded in a binary format [2], which means they are not human readable unless we decode them back to a readable format. Protocol buffers are Google’s language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data — think XML, but smaller, faster, and simpler. Define message formats in a .proto file. 在每一项后面的、类似于“= 1”,“= 2”的标志指出了该字段在二进制编码中使用的唯一“标识(tag)”。标识号1~15编码所需的字节数比更大的标识号使用的字节数要少1个,所以,如果你想寻求优化,可以为经常使用或者重复的项采用1~15的标识(tag),其他经常使用的optional项采用≥16的标识(tag)。在重复的字段中,每一项都要求重编码标识号(tag number),所以重复的字段特别适用于这种优化情况。, 你可以在Language Guide (proto3)一文中找到编写.proto文件的完整指南(包括所有可能的字段类型)。但是,不要想在里面找到与类继承相似的特性,因为protocol buffers不是拿来做这个的。, 在得到一个.proto文件之后,下一步你就要生成可以读写Student消息(当然也就包括了PhoneNumber消息)的类了。此时你需要运行protocol buffer编译器来编译你的.proto文件。, 如果你还没有安装该编译器,下载protobuf源码 ,或直接到github上下载,详情请参照README.md文件中的说明来安装。, To build and install the C++ Protocol Buffer runtime and the Protocol [6]Protobuf C++英文教程 Firstly, we need to install protobuf on our machine. required:必须提供字段值,否则对应的消息就会被认为是“未初始化的”。如果libprotobuf是以debug模式编译的,序列化一个未初始化的消息(message)将会导致一个断言错误。在优化过的编译情况下(译者注:例如release),该检查会被跳过,消息会被写入。然而,解析一个未初始化的消息仍然会失败(解析函数会返回false)。除此之外,一个required的字段与一个optional的字段就没有区别了。, optional:字段值指定与否都可以。如果没有指定一个optional的字段值,它就会使用默认值。对简单类型来说,你可以指定你自己的默认值,就像我们在上面的例子中对phone number的type字段所做的一样。如果你不指定默认值,就会使用系统默认值:数据类型的默认值为0,string的默认值为空字符串,bool的默认值为false。对嵌套消息(message)来说,其默认值总是消息的“默认实例”或“原型”,即:没有任何一个字段是指定了值的。调用访问类来取一个未显式指定其值的optional(或者required)的字段的值,总是会返回字段的默认值。, repeated:字段会重复N次(N可以为0)。重复的值的顺序将被保存在protocol buffer中。你只要将重复的字段视为动态大小的数组就可以了。, 注意: required是永久性的:在把一个字段标识为required的时候,你应该特别小心。如果在某些情况下你不想写入或者发送一个required的字段,那么将该字段更改为optional可能会遇到问题——旧版本的读者(译者注:即读取、解析消息的一方)会认为不含该字段的消息(message)是不完整的,从而有可能会拒绝解析。在这种情况下,你应该考虑编写特别针对于应用程序的、自定义的消息校验函数。Google的一些工程师得出了一个结论:使用required弊多于利;他们更愿意使用optional和repeated而不是required。当然,这个观点并不具有普遍性。, 关于标识。 It covers a lot more possibilities and things to consider when using Java than I will cover here. For an introduction on Nanopb, the protocol buffers library we are going to use, please check this previous tutorial. Due to the variation of message formats in a given protocol, the presence and/or lack of fields on an ad-hoc basis makes implementation in … And how do they compare to JSON? 打开excel2007看了下,默认情况下插入图表时,只允许选... Netty实现数据格式转换的方式是继承实现ByteToMessageDecoder和MessageToByteEncoder。. Protocol Buffers—-java Protocol Buffers使用小示例 官方文档 1.添加maven依赖 <!-- https://mvnrepository.com/arti 每一个消息(message)还包含了其他一系列函数,用来检查或管理整个消息,包括:, 这些函数以及后面章节将要提到的I/O函数实现了Message 的接口,它们被所有C++ protocol buffer类共享。更多信息,请查看文章complete API documentation for Message。, 最后,每一个protocol buffer类都有读写你所选择的消息类型的函数。它们包括:, 这些函数只是用于解析和序列化的几个函数罢了。请再次参考Message API reference以查看完整的函数列表。, 注意: By walking through creating a simple example To do this, you need to run the protocol buffer compiler protoc on your .proto : If you haven't installed the compiler, download the package and follow the instructions in the README. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. 再往下看,就是若干消息(message)定义了。一个消息就是某些类型的字段的集合。许多标准的、简单的数据类型都可以用作字段类型,包括bool,int32,float,double以及string。你也可以使用其他的消息(message)类型来作为你的字段类型——在上面的例子中,消息PhoneNumber 就是一个被用作字段类型的例子。, 关于修饰符。 Sounds Confusing. Protocol Buffers, or Protobuf for short, a data interchange format originally developed for internal use, has been offered to the general public as an open source project (partly Apache 2.0 license) by Google since 2008. In this guide we will see how to use Google protocol buffersin Java to serialize structured data. By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you h Use the Java gRPC API to write a simple client and server for your service. Teams. Use the protocol buffer compiler. 数字(整数或浮点数) The tutorials don't assume that you know anything about protocol buffers, but do assume that you are comfortable writing code in your chosen language, including using file I/O. For details, see the Google Developers Site Policies. 使用export命令临时修改LD_LIBRARY_PATH,只对当前shell会话有效:, 方法二: I will show you both using gradle and maven build tools. (1)代码可移植(实现仅依赖于ANSI C++)。 This tutorial provides a basic Python programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. The Protocol Buffer Basics: Java tutorial outlines the process for using Protocol Buffers with Java. I will show you both using gradle and maven build tools. ProtoBuf介绍定义protocol buffers 是一种语言无关、平台无关、可扩展的序列化结构数据的方法,它可用于(数据)通信协议、数据存储等。 与XML和JSON对比1.序列化后体积相比Json和XML很小,适合网络传输 2.支持跨… By walking through this example you’ll learn how to: Define a service in a .proto file. This tutorial provides a basic Node.js programmer’s introduction to working with gRPC. Protocol Buffers are data format which stores data in a structured format. doi-t / protocol_buffers_and_grpc_tutorial.md. Protocol Buffers - Google's data interchange format serialization protobuf protocol-buffers marshalling rpc protoc protocol-compiler C++ 12,091 45,044 1,032 (27 issues need help) 172 Updated Dec 1, 2020. upb a small protobuf implementation in C C 192 1,103 9 3 Updated Nov 26, 2020. Protocol Buffers(2):编码与解码 在上一篇文章中我们提到,对于序列化后字节流,需要回答的一个重要问题是“从哪里到哪里是哪个数据成员”。 Introduction. The examples of this tutorial are minimized to be useful to understanding, they should not be used as is in production. protocol-buffers . By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you how to Define message formats in a .proto file. Posted: (8 days ago) Each tutorial in this section shows you how to implement a simple application using protocol buffers in your favourite language, introducing you to the language's protocol buffer API as well as showing you the basics of creating and using .proto files.The complete sample code for each application is also provided. Copyright © 2013 - 2020 Tencent Cloud. Protocol Buffer Basics: C++This tutorial provides a basic C++ programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. You define how you want your data to be structured once, then you can use special generated source code to easily write and read your structured data to and from a variety of data streams and using a variety of languages. Use the protocol buffer compiler. This guide describes how to use the protocol buffer language to structure your protocol buffer data, including .proto file syntax and how to generate data access classes from your .proto files. Also it'd be great if someone can give me a simple example about Protocol Buffers implementation in JavaScript. Data in the protocol buffer format can be serialized and deserialized by multiple languages. This tutorial provides a basic Python programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. 方法一: Qt-msvc使用Protocol Buffers 简介 Protocol Buffer是google 的一种数据交换的格式,它独立于语言,独立于平台。google 提供了多种语言的实现:java、c#、c++、go 和 python,每一种实现都包含了相应语言的编译器以及库文件。 asked 2 hours ago in Python by laddulakshana (1.4k points) python; installation; protocols; protocol-buffers; deep-dream; In this tutorial, we will see how protocol buffers can be used in the context of GO Language. protocol buffers和面向对象的设计 protocol buffer类通常只是纯粹的数据存储器(就像C++中的结构体一样);它们在对象模型中并不是一等公民。如果你想向生成的类中添加更丰富的行为,最好的方法就是在应用程序中对它进行封装。如果你无权控制.proto文件的设计的话,封装protocol buffers也是一个好主意(例如,你从另一个项目中重用一个.proto文件)。在那种情况下,你可以用封装类来设计接口,以更好地适应你的应用程序的特定环境:隐藏一些数据和方法,暴露一些便于使用的函数,等等。但是你绝对不要通过继承生成的类来添加行为。这样做的话,会破坏其内部机制,并且不是一个好的面向对象的实践。, 下面让我们尝试使用protobuf为我们产生的消息类来进行序列化和反序列的操作。你想让你的Student程序完成的第一件事情就是向Student消息类对象进行 赋值,并且进行序列化操作。然后在从序列化结果进行反序列话操作,解析我们需要的字段信息。具体参考如下示例代码:, 原因是protobuf的连接库默认安装路径是/usr/local/lib,而/usr/local/lib 不在常见Linux系统的LD_LIBRARY_PATH链接库路径这个环境变量里,所以就找不到该lib。LD_LIBRARY_PATH是Linux环境变量名,该环境变量主要用于指定查找共享库(动态链接库)。所以,解决办法就是修改环境变量LD_LIBRARY_PATH的值。 或者永久修改,在~/目录下打开.bash_profile文件,设置环境变量如下:, 注意Linux下点号开头的文件都是隐藏文件,使用ls -a 可查看指定目录下的所有文件,包括隐藏文件。, 方法三: Protocol Buffers 语法.proto文件的语法跟Java的很相似,message相当于class,enum即枚举类型, 基本的数据类型有bool, int32, float, double, 和 string,类型前的修饰符有: required 必需的字段 optional 可选的字段 repeated 重复的字段 每一个字段都必须用以下之一的修饰符来修饰: .proto文件以一个package声明开始。这个声明是为了防止不同项目之间的命名冲突。对应到C++中去,你用这个.proto文件生成的类将被放置在一个与package名相同的命名空间中。, 关于字段类型。 Protocol Buffers (a.k.a., protobuf) are Google's language-neutral, platform-neutral, extensible mechanism for serializing structured data. “Protocol Buffers” spawned streamlined “zero copy” serialization formats. Protocol Buffer Basics: Go | Protocol Buffers, This tutorial provides a basic Java programmer's introduction to working with protocol buffers. All Rights Reserved. You define how you want your data to be structured once, then you can use special generated source code to easily write and read your structured data to and from a variety of data streams and using a variety of languages. Protocol Buffers and Object Oriented Design Protocol buffer classes are basically dumb data holders (like structs in C); they don't make good first class citizens in an object model. Please check the previous tutorial for a detailed explanation on how to get started with Nanopb.. As can be seen here, when defining the message type in the .proto file, string is one of the data types we can use. Protocol Buffers Basics I: Learn how to create your first messages using Scalar Types.Practice with 5 exercises; Protocol Buffers Basics II: Learn how to create complex messages, and organise your code in different files and packages. • Why do we even need to encode/decode?! We will be using the ESP32 and the Arduino core. 字符串(在双引号中) [2]protobuf github源码 We then moved to client support and the serialization-deserialization mechanism. Reportedly, they take almost 1/3 rd of … By walking through creating a simple example application, it shows you how to Define message formats in a .proto file. In this tutorial we will check how to obtain a measurement from the DS18B20 temperature sensor and encode it using protocol buffers. Before we dive into the heart of RPC, let's take some time to understand how it works. Why can’t we mmapthe data?! Sounds Confusing. 本文主要介绍如何在windows上安装protobuf,以及如何在python下使用protobuf。 What is protocol buffers? 首先介绍一下什么是protobuf, protobuf 是由google开发完成并放到github上分享的一套打包数据的机制,… community . Protocol buffers are a data serialization format from Google which are supported in multiple programming languages [1]. Google Protocol Buffers have become a very popular serialization mechanism for simple to complex/variant data structures. Use the Java protocol … Protocol Buffers (Protobuf) is a method of serializing structured data. (5)非入侵性。, Windows平台下可使用MFC中的序列化方法。MFC 对 CObject 类中的序列化提供内置支持。因此,所有从 CObject派生的类都可利用 CObject 的序列化协议。详见MSDN中的介绍。, .NET的运行时环境用来支持用户定义类型的流化的机制。它在此过程中,先将对象的公共字段和私有字段以及类的名称(包括类所在的程序集)转换为字节流,然后再把字节流写入数据流。在随后对对象进行反序列化时,将创建出与原对象完全相同的副本。, 这几种序列化方案各有优缺点,各有自己的适用场景。XML产生的数据文件较大,很少使用。MFC和.NET框架的方法适用范围很窄,只适用于Windows下,且.NET框架方法需要.NET的运行环境,但是二者结合Visual Studio IDE使用最为方便。Google Protocol Buffers效率较高,但是数据对象必须预先定义,并使用protoc编译,适合要求效率,允许自定义类型的内部场合使用。Boost.Serialization使用灵活简单,而且支持标准C++容器。, 考虑平台的移植性、适用性和高效性,推荐大家使用Google的protobuf和Boost的序列化方案,下面我重点介绍protobuf的使用方法及注意事项。, protobuf相对而言效率应该是最高的,不管是安装效率还是使用效率,protobuf都很高效,而且protobuf不仅用于C++序列化,还可用于Java和Python的序列化,使用范围很广。, 关于ProtoBuf示例代码包含在源代码包中的“examples”目录下。点击此处下载。, 首先看一下ProtoBuf支持的数据类型。protobuf属于轻量级的,因此不能支持太多的数据类型,下面是protobuf支持的基本类型列表,一般都能满足需求,不过在选择方案之前,还是先看看是否都能支持,以免前功尽弃。同样该表也值得收藏,作为我们在定义类型时做参考。, 知道了ProtoBuf的作用与支持的数据类型。我么需要知道ProtoBuf使用的一般步骤,下面以C++中使用ProtoBuf为例来描述使用的一般步骤。, 第一步:定义proto文件,文件的内容就是定义我们需要存储或者传输的数据结构,也就是定义我们自己的数据存储或者传输的协议。, 第二步:编译安装protocol buffer编译器来编译自定义的.proto文件,用于生成.pb.h文件(proto文件中自定义类的头文件)和 .pb.cc(proto文件中自定义类的实现文件)。, 定义proto文件就是定义自己的数据存储或者传输的协议格式。我们以上面需要传输的Student对象为例。要想序列化Student对象进行网络传输,那么我们需要从编写一个.proto文件开始。.proto文件的定义是比较简单的:为每一个你需要序列化的数据结构添加一个消息(message),然后为消息(message)中的每一个字段(field)指定一个名字、类型和修饰符以及唯一标识(tag)。每一个消息对应到C++中就是一个类,嵌套消息对应的就是嵌套类,当然一个.proto文件中可以定义多个消息,就像一个头文件中可以定义多个类一样。下面就是一个自定义的嵌套消息的.proto文件student.proto。, 正如你所看到的一样,该语法类似于C++或Java的语法。让我们依次来看看文件的每一部分的作用。, 关于package声明。 Ds18B20 temperature sensor and encode it using protocol buffers ( protobuf ) is a private, secure spot for and. Encode/Decode? and server for your service: Python & GO protoc command generate. Time to understand how it works ) – a well-known language-agnostic binary data.... In less cycles JavaScript or is it a good choice to use, please this... An RPC client/server model using Google 's gRPC and protocol buffers library we are going to use Google buffers... To use Google protocol buffers are a data serialization format from Google which are supported multiple! A well-known language-agnostic binary data format which stores data in the context GO. And things to consider when using Java than i will cover here will cover here using Java than i cover! Output file from our addressbook.proto file use Google protocol buffers are a serialization... Why do we even need to encode/decode? serialize structured data a wire or for storing data serializing... From the DS18B20 temperature sensor and encode it using protocol buffers can be and. 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